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The Outcomes of Homelessness

By: Jadyn Banaria

Abstract: This paper discusses challenges faced by unhoused individuals, including physical, emotional, substance abuse issues, and mental illnesses. Homelessness has severe impacts on children’s health, academics, and behavior. Addressing it requires stable housing, healthcare access, and support for mental health and substance abuse. Affordable housing, equitable healthcare, and interventions for unhoused children are vital. Collaboration between government, nonprofits, businesses, and communities is crucial to tackle homelessness. Embracing an inclusive society with affordable housing can reduce homelessness and foster a just and caring community.


Homelessness is a term often used casually, but its impact on individuals goes far beyond not having a place to sleep. It is a growing problem with far-reaching consequences on various aspects of a person’s life. Homelessness leads to a cascade of challenges, including physical, sexual, emotional, and substance abuse. Additionally, mental and physical illnesses are prevalent among the homeless population, as is social isolation, competing for basic necessities, and living in hazardous or overcrowded conditions.

A significant proportion, around 20 to 30 percent, of unhoused individuals suffer from mental illnesses. Without a stable home, they are exposed to various dangers, including harsh weather conditions and unsafe environments, making them four times more likely to be hospitalized. Harsh weather can lead to severe health issues like frostbite, hyperthermia, and even death. Furthermore, the risk of severe injuries, particularly traumatic head injuries, is five times higher for the homeless population than for the general public. The lack of access to proper medical care also contributes to lower mortality rates for unhoused individuals.

The detrimental effects of homelessness extend to nutrition and overall health. Poor nutrition can lead to related disorders such as uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension. The emotional toll of homelessness often leads to coping mechanisms involving drug and alcohol abuse, affecting approximately 30 to 50 percent of unhoused individuals and exacerbating cardiovascular morbidity and mortality at a younger age compared to the general population. Regrettably, the average lifespan of an unhoused person is significantly lower, between 42 and 52 years, compared to 73 to 79 years for a housed person. This discrepancy is a direct consequence of the ongoing housing crisis.


Homelessness takes an even more devastating toll on children. Unhoused children are more susceptible to health issues, academic struggles, and behavioral challenges. During their formative years, when their brains are still developing, the instability of homelessness can lead to long-lasting effects in their adult lives. Unhoused children face problems such as food and housing insecurity, trust issues, anxiety, depression, and other mental illnesses. Developmental issues are also prevalent among unhoused children, with a sixfold increased risk of stunted growth and higher chances of developing learning disabilities.They are four times more likely to fall sick, experiencing asthma, iron deficiency, lead poisoning, respiratory and ear infections, and gastrointestinal problems. These children face hunger, abuse, neglect, family separation, and poor nutrition at rates higher than their housed counterparts. Babies born into unhoused families face a particularly dire situation, with a ninefold increased risk of not surviving past one year of age. Low birth rates among unhoused infants impact their ability to gain weight, eat, and fight off infections, leading to potential long-term health problems.


Addressing homelessness is an urgent and multifaceted challenge that demands a comprehensive approach. It involves more than just offering a temporary fix; it necessitates tackling the root causes and providing long-term solutions that address the intertwined issues of stable housing, healthcare access, and support for mental health and substance abuse.

At the heart of any effective strategy to combat homelessness lies the critical need for stable housing. Without a safe and secure place to call home, individuals and families are trapped in a state of constant uncertainty and vulnerability. Stable housing not only offers a sense of security but also provides a solid foundation from which people can address other pressing challenges in their lives. Policies that promote affordable housing options can be instrumental in preventing homelessness and ensuring that no one is left without a roof over their head.

In addition to stable housing, access to healthcare plays a pivotal role in addressing homelessness. Unhoused individuals often encounter significant barriers to healthcare services, which exacerbates existing health issues and prevents timely medical intervention. Ensuring equitable access to healthcare facilities and services tailored to the needs of homeless populations is vital in improving their overall wellbeing. By focusing on preventive care, early intervention, and ongoing support, we can enhance the physical health of those experiencing homelessness and reduce the strain on emergency medical resources.

Furthermore, it is essential to recognize the impact of homelessness on children. Unhoused children face a unique set of challenges that can have long-lasting consequences for their physical, emotional, and cognitive development. Disrupted education, food insecurity, and exposure to adverse living conditions can severely impede their future prospects. Prioritizing interventions specifically designed to support unhoused children, such as educational programs, counseling services, and access to nutritious meals, is crucial in breaking the cycle of generational homelessness and providing these vulnerable individuals with the best chance for a brighter future.

The interplay between mental health and homelessness cannot be overlooked. Many individuals experiencing homelessness grapple with mental health issues, often as a result of trauma, loss, or the stress of being homeless itself. Substance abuse also frequently co-occurs with homelessness, as people may turn to drugs or alcohol as a coping mechanism. Providing tailored support for mental health and addiction is not only a humanitarian imperative but also an effective means of addressing the root causes of homelessness. Integrating mental health services and addiction treatment into homeless outreach programs can offer a pathway to recovery and stability for those in need.

Developing effective strategies to combat homelessness requires a comprehensive, society-wide effort. Advocacy, policy changes, and funding allocation are all essential components of such an endeavor. Collaborative partnerships between government agencies, non-profit organizations, businesses, and community members are vital in pooling resources and expertise to tackle the issue holistically. Striving toward a society and economy with affordable housing is an integral part of the solution. By creating an environment where housing is affordable and accessible to all, we lay the groundwork for reducing homelessness and promoting social equity. This involves addressing urban development, zoning regulations, and investment in social housing initiatives.

In conclusion, homelessness is a pressing social issue that requires a compassionate and determined response from society. By recognizing the severe impact of homelessness, particularly on vulnerable populations like children, and implementing comprehensive efforts that encompass stable housing, healthcare access, and support for mental health and substance abuse, we can move closer to a future where homelessness is a rare occurrence rather than a prevalent reality. Embracing the vision of an inclusive society with affordable housing options for all will play a pivotal role in achieving this goal and fostering a more just and caring community.


Care of the Homeless: An Overview – Siumed.Edu, www.siumed.edu/sites/default/files/u971/care_of_the_homeless_an_overview.pdf. Accessed 26 July 2023. Gelberg, L, et al. “The Behavioral Model for Vulnerable Populations: Application to Medical Care Use and Outcomes for Homeless People.” Health Services Research, Feb. 2000, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1089079/.